Supplementary materials Chapter 2

Sarah Garré

#ANNEX I – List of management practices

Table 1:Description of management practices

Soil tillage and soil cover

Crop and cropping system

Soil nutrient management and crop protection

Water Management

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.1.1. No till

4.2.1. Crop rotations

4.3.1. Use of organic fertilizers (green- and animal manure, organic by-products and crop residues, biochar, compost)

4.4.1. Determination of the Water Use Efficiency (photosynthetic WUE, WUE of productivity, water footprint)

4.1.2.Direct seeding

4.2.2.Associations/intercropping/multiple cropping/sequential crop

4.3.2. Use of biofertilizers (biostimulants, nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, mycorrhizae)

4.4.2. Efficient irrigation systems (drippers or micro-sprinklers, subterranean irrigation, distribution efficiency)

4.1.3. Non-inversion/reduced tillage

4.2.3. Cover/catch crops

4.3.3. Use of soil amendments for buffer capacity and pH (organic, inorganic)

4.4.3. Irrigation scheduling (based on models for water and solute transport, soil water balance, water deficit irrigation)

4.1.4. Contour ploughing

4.2.4. Use grassland/ pasture with legumes

4.3.4. Methods for efficient fertilization (fertilizer recommendation, models to estimate soil nutrient balance)

4.4.4. Drainage systems, management of water table and flooding

4.1.5. Terrace farming

4.2.5. Perennial crops

4.3.5. Mechanical weeding

4.4.5. Monitoring of soil salinisation

4.1.6. Controlled traffic farming

4.2.6. Mulching

4.3.6. Precision of herbicide application

4.4.6. Monitor the quality of irrigation water (for salts, nutrients and potential harmful substances)

4.1.7. Low pressure (in) tires

4.2.7. Permanent soil cover

4.4.7. Improve water storage capacity, infiltration and reduction of runoff

4.1.8. Reduction of soil compaction

4.2.8. Vegetated/grass buffer strips

4.2.9. Hedges

#ANNEX II- RULES ON CROSS-COMPLIANCE PURSUANT Art. 93 REGULATION (EU) No 1307/2013

Table 2:Cross compliance SMR and GAEC

SMR: Statutory management requirement

GAEC: Standards for good agricultural and environmental condition of land

Area                  

Main Issue

Requirements and Standards

Environmental, climate change, good agricultural condition of land

 

Water

SMR 1

Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources

GAEC 1

Establishment of buffer strips along water courses

GAEC 2

Where use of water for irrigation is subject to authorisation, compliance with authorisation procedures

GAEC 3

Protection of ground water against pollution

Soil and carbon stock

GAEC 4

Minimum soil cover

GAEC 5

Minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit erosion

GAEC 6

Maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices including ban on burning arable stubble, except for plant health reasons

 

 

Biodiversity

SMR 2

Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds

SMR 3

Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild flora and fauna.

Landscape, minimum level of maintenance

GAEC 7

Retention of landscape features, including where appropriate, hedges, ponds, ditches, trees in line, in group or isolated, field margins and terraces, and including a ban on cutting hedges and trees during the bird breeding and rearing season and, as an option, measures for avoiding invasive plant species

 

 

Public health, animal health and plant health

 

 

Food safety

SMR 4

Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety

SMR 5

Council Directive 96/22/EC of 29 April 1996 concerning the prohibition on the use in stock farming of certain substances having a hormonal or thyrostatic action and beta-agonists

 

Identification and registration of animals

SMR 6

Council Directive 2008/71/EC of 15 July 2008 on identification and registration of pigs

SMR 7

Regulation (EC) No 1760/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 July 2000 establishing a system for the identification and registration of bovine animals and regarding the labelling of beef and beef products

SMR 8

Council Regulation (EC) No 21/2004 of 17 December 2003 establishing a system for the identification and registration of ovine and caprine animals

Animal diseases

SMR 9

Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Plant protection products

SMR 10

Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market

Animal welfare

Animal welfare

SMR 11

Council Directive 2008/119/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of calves

SMR 12

Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs

SMR 13

Council Directive 98/58/EC of 20 July 1998 concerning the protection of animals kept for farming purposes

#ANNEX III – Priority of RDP and Focus area

Table 3:Union priorities for rural development and focus area codes

Priorities

Focus area code

Focus area

Priority 1: Fostering knowledge transfer and innovation in agriculture, forestry, and rural areas

1A

Fostering innovation, cooperation, and the development of the knowledge base in rural areas

1B

Strengthening the links between agriculture, food production and forestry and research and innovation, including for the purpose of improved environmental management and performance

1C

Fostering lifelong learning and vocational training in the agricultural and forestry sectors

Priority 2: Enhancing farm viability and competitiveness of all types of agriculture in all regions and promoting innovative farm technologies and sustainable management of forest

2A

Improving the economic performance of all farms and facilitating farm restructuring and modernisation, notably with a view to increasing market participation and orientation as well as agricultural diversification

2B

Facilitating the entry of adequately skilled farmers into the agricultural sector and, in particular, generational renewal

Priority 3: Promoting food chain organisation, including processing and marketing of agricultural products, animal welfare and risk management in agriculture

3A

Improving competitiveness of primary producers by better integrating them into the agri-food chain through quality schemes, adding value to agricultural products, promotion in local markets and short supply circuits, producer groups and organisations and inter-branch organisations

3B

Supporting farm risk prevention and management

Priority 4: Restoring, preserving and enhancing ecosystems related to agriculture and forestry

4A

Restoring, preserving and enhancing biodiversity, including in Natura 2000 areas, and in areas facing natural or other specific constraints, and high nature value farming, as well as the state of European landscapes

4B

Improving water management, including fertiliser and pesticide management

4C

Preventing soil erosion and improving soil management

Priority 5: Promoting resource efficiency and supporting the shift towards a low carbon and climate resilient economy in agriculture, food and forestry sectors

5A

Increasing efficiency in water use by agriculture

5B

Increasing efficiency in energy use in agriculture and food processing

5C

Facilitating the supply and use of renewable sources of energy, of by-products, wastes and residues and of other non-food raw material, for the purposes of the bio-economy

5D

Reducing greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from agriculture

5E

Fostering carbon conservation and sequestration in agriculture and forestry

Priority 6: Promoting social inclusion poverty reduction and economic development in rural areas

6A

Facilitating diversification, creation and development of small enterprises, as well as job creation

6B

Fostering local development in rural areas

6C

Enhancing the accessibility, use and quality of information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural areas

#References

European Commission. Communication COM(2021) 82 final. Forging a climate-resilient Europe - the new EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM:2021:82:FIN

EEA (2010). The European environment – state and outlook 2010

EEA (2019). Climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector in Europe. EAA report 04/2019. ISSN 1977-8449.

https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/cc-adaptation-agriculture

Frelih-Larsen et al, 2014. Mainstreaming climate change into rural development policy post-2013.

ECA Special Report N. 23 (2019). Farmers’ income stabilisation: comprehensive set of tools, but low uptake of instruments and overcompensation need to be tackled

European Council. 2006. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the European Council establishing a framework for the protection of soil and amending Directive 2004/35/EC. European Union, Brussels, Belgium.

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/soil/pdf/com_2006_0232_en.pdf

Guyomard, H., Bureau J.-C. et al. (2020), Research for AGRI Committee – The Green Deal and the CAP: policy implications to adapt farming practices and to preserve the EU’s natural resources. European Parliament, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, Brussels.

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=IPOL_STU(2020)629214

Mills, J., Gaskell, P., Ingram, J. et al. Engaging farmers in environmental management through a better understanding of behaviour. Agric Hum Values 34, 283–299 (2017).

OECD (2011), Management Risk in Agriculture. Policy Assessment and Design.

https://www.oecd.org/publications/managing-risk-in-agriculture-9789264116146-en.htm

Paz, A. et al. (2020). Synthesis of impacts of sustainable soil management practices. EJP SOIL deliverable 2.1.

https://ejpsoil.eu/fileadmin/projects/ejpsoil/WP2/Deliverable_2.1_Synthesis_of_the_impact_of_sustainable_soil_management_practices_in_Europe.pdf

Alicia McNeill, Harriet Bradley, Melanie Muro, Nicholas Merriman, Robert Pederson, Tugce Tugran, Zuzana Lukacova. Inventory of opportunities and bottlenecks in policy to facilitate the adoption of soil-improving techniques. Deliverable 7.1 SoilCAre project

https://www.soilcare-project.eu/resources/deliverables

SWD/2021/0115 final. COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT EVALUATION of the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy on climate change and greenhouse gas emissions.

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52021SC0115

CAP – Common documents

· Integration of CAP with relevant agro-environmental legislation initiatives

https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/consultations/cap-modernising/env_background_final_en.pdf

· Integration of EU water policy objectives with the CAP

https://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR14_04/SR14_04_EN.pdf

· Overview of CAP reform 2014-2020 - Agricultural Policy Perspectives Brief

https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/newsroom/156_en

· EAA- SOER 2015. The European environment — state and outlook 2015: an integrated assessment of the European Environment

https://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-2015/about

· COM(2000) 20 final - COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

Indicators for the Integration of Environmental Concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A52000DC0020

· Agricultural Policy Perspectives Brief, No 5, European Commission, December 2013

https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/policy-perspectives/policy-briefs/05_en.pdf

· European Commission EUROPE 2020 A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth /COM/2010/2020 final/.

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52010DC2020&from=it

· REGULATION (EU) No 1306/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 December 2013 (financing, management and monitoring of CAP)

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32013R1306

· European Commission. COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT (SWD) (2016) 218 final. Review of greening after one year

CAP – I Pillar

· REGULATION (EU) No 1307/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 December 2013 (Direct payment)

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2013.347.01.0608.01.ENG

· REGULATION (EU) No 1308/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 December 2013 (Market intervention)

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:347:0671:0854:EN:PDF

· CAP EXPLAINED DIRECT PAYMENTS FOR FARMERS 2015-2020

https://publications.europa.eu/it/publication-detail/-/publication/541f0184-759e-11e7-b2f2-01aa75ed71a1/language-it/format-PDF

· Voluntary Coupled Support

https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/direct-support/direct-payments/docs/voluntary-coupled-support-note-revised_en.pdf

CAP – II Pillar

· EC web site with Rural Development Programme (National and Regional) for all Member States

https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rural-development-2014-2020/country-files_it

· REGULATION (EU) No 1305/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 December 2013 (Rural Development)

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32013R1305

· COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 808/2014 of 17 July 2014 (laying down rules for the application of Regulation (EU) No 1305/2013)

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32014R0808

· COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) No 807/2014 of 11 March 2014 (supplementing Regulation (EU) No 1305/2013)

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32014R0807

Nitrate Directive

· Web site with Working Document on the implementation of the Nitrates Directive

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/index_en.html

· Maps of Nitrate Vulnerable Zones

https://water.jrc.ec.europa.eu/portal/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=d651ecd9f5774080aad738958906b51b

· Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:31991L0676

Water Framework Directive

· Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32000L0060

· European Commission (2009). Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60 /EC). Guidance document No. 24 RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT IN A CHANGING CLIMATE

https://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/adaptation/index_en.htm

Pesticide Directive

· Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32009L0128

Post 2023 CAP reform

· The new common agricultural policy: 2023-27

https://ec.europa.eu/info/food-farming-fisheries/key-policies/common-agricultural-policy/future-cap_en

· Regulation (EU) 2021/2115. CAP Strategic Plans

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2021.435.01.0001.01.ENG

· Regulation (EU) 2021/2116 on the financing, management and monitoring of the common agricultural policy

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2021.435.01.0187.01.ENG

· Regulation (EU) 2021/2117 establishing a common organisation of the markets in agricultural products

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2021.435.01.0262.01.ENG

· European Commission 2019 The European Green Deal (COM) 2019 640 final

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52019DC0640

· European Commission (2020). Farm to Fork Strategy.

https://ec.europa.eu/food/farm2fork_en.

· European Commission (2020). EU Soil Strategy for 2030. Reaping the benefits of healthy soils for people, food, nature and climate.

https://ec.europa.eu/environment/publications/eu-soil-strategy-2030_en

List of potential agricultural practices that eco-schemes could support

https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/commissionpublishes-list-potential-eco-schemes-2021-jan-14_en#moreinfo

LIFE - Environment sub-programme

https://ec.europa.eu/easme/en/section/life/life-environment-sub-programme

References
  1. Mills, J., Gaskell, P., Ingram, J., Dwyer, J., Reed, M., & Short, C. (2016). Engaging farmers in environmental management through a better understanding of behaviour. Agriculture and Human Values, 34(2), 283–299. 10.1007/s10460-016-9705-4