Chapter 1

Chapter 2

AECM: Agricultural-Environment-Climate Measures

CAP: Common Agricultural Policy. The set of legislation and practices adopted by the European Union to provide a common, unified policy on agriculture. The initial measures were introduced in 1962. Since then, the policy has been adapted and developed and has undergone a number of reforms.

CSF: Common Strategic Framework, translates the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy into workable actions for the 5 European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF).

Cross-compliance: A system linking most CAP payments to a set of basic standards to ensure the good agricultural and environmental condition of land (GAECs) and certain obligations, known as statutory management requirements (SMRs). SMRs are defined in the respective EU legislation on the environment, climate change, public, animal and plant health, and animal welfare.

Direct payments: Aid granted directly to farmers to provide them a safety net. They mainly take the form of a basic income support, not linked to production. They help to stabilise farmers’ income stemming from sales on the markets, which are subject to volatility. Direct payments are made from the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF), commonly referred to as ‘Pillar I’ of the CAP.

ECA: European Court of Auditors

EFA: Ecological Focus Areas. Land on farms dedicated to specific practices or features beneficial for the environment. Under greening, farms generally must dedicate at least 5 % of their arable land to EFAs.

EIP: European Innovation Partnership

ESIF: European Structural and Investment Funds, finance the EU territorial/cohesion policies. The ESIF include five different funds, which are all covered by Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council, the so-called ‘Common Provisions Regulation’. The Structural Funds have two components: the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), providing financial support for the development and structural adjustment of regional economies, economic change, enhanced competitiveness as well as territorial cooperation throughout the EU; and the European Social Fund (ESF), seeking to contribute to the adaptability of workers and enterprises, access to employment and participation in the labour market, social inclusion of disadvantaged people, combating all forms of discrimination, and creating partnerships to manage reforms in employment. The other three funds constituting the ESIF are the Cohesion Fund, which supports exclusively less-developed Member States; the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development; and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund.

EGD: European Green Deal - provide a roadmap for making Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050

ESPG: Environmentally Sensitive Permanent Grassland

GAEC: Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition. Collective term for a set of basic standards, applicable under cross compliance, defining good agricultural and environmental condition of land.

PG: The permanent grassland ratio. Ratio of permanent grassland to total agricultural areas

Pillar I of the CAP: Part of the Common Agricultural Policy encompassing direct payments to farmers and market measures.

Pillar II of the CAP: Part of the Common Agricultural Policy encompassing rural development measures.

SMR: Statutory Management Requirements. A collective term for a set of obligations defined in the respective EU legislation on the environment, climate change, public, animal and plant health, and animal welfare, and applicable under cross-compliance.

RDP: Rural development Programme**,** An EU policy, commonly referred to as Pillar II of the CAP, addressing the economic, environmental and social needs of EU rural areas. Rural development payments are made from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), with Member State co-financing.

SOC: Soil Organic Content

Chapter 3

Atl: Atlantic climate risk zone

BMP: Best Management practices

Bus. Diver Business diversity

CC: Climate change

CC & AD: Climate change awareness and Adaptation

CCA: Climate change awareness

CE: Choice experiment

Cont: Continental climate risk zone

Cvs: Cultivars

DLO: Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek

EEA: European Environmental Agency

Env. Respon: Environmentally responsible

EO: Ecologically orientated

FTZ: Farm Type Zone

IB: Innovative behaviour

IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LPA: Less productive areas

MPPACC: Model of Private Proactive Adaptation to Climate Change

N: Northern climate risk zone


No Till: No Tillage

PAE: Perceived adaptation efficacy

PCA: Principal component analysis

PCC: Positive CC

PMT: protection motivation theory

PO: Production orientation

PRM: Profit and resource maximiser

PsCC: Passive CC

S: Southern climate risk zone

SE: self -efficacy

SR: Sceptical regulations

Srg: short rotation, grassland

Chapter 4

C: Carbon

CH4: Methane

CO2: Carbon dioxide

ETa: Actual evapotranspiration

EU: European Union

GHG: Greenhouse Gas

MBC: Microbial Biomass Carbon

MBN: Microbial Biomass Nitrogen

N: Nitrogen

N2O: Nitrous oxide

pCO2: Pressure of CO2

Rs: Soil respiration

SFT: Space-For-Time substitution approach

SOC: Soil Organic Carbon

SOM: Soil Organic Matter

WP: Work Package

Chapter 5

Ks: saturateed hzdraulic conductivity

Kh: saturated or near-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the tension range between 0 and 100 mm

Kx: hydraulic conductivity at tension of x mm, e.g. K100

OTIM-DB: Open Tension-disk Infiltrometer Database

ES: effect size

LGB: light gradient boosting (a machine learning approach)

SHAP: Shapley additive explanations (an index that quantifies the importance of a predictor in a machine
learning approach)

RMSE: root mean squared error

WRB: World reference base

USDA: United States Department of Agriculture

Chapter 6

NLP: Natural Language Processing

WRB: World reference base

USDA: United States Department of Agriculture

LDA: Latent Dirichlet Algorithm